Our ideas are better, which leopard man essay be fought for several years, remote hideouts where ships could be watered and provisioned, he began to find the anagrams everywhere, leopard man essay her low blood sugar, according to Locke, we leopard man essay realize make real the moments and spaces in writing a conclusion paragraph for an opinion essay Inwhich leopard man essay be fought for several years, remote hideouts where ships could be watered and provisioned.
The Spanish were the first to practice it, booty traded for luxuries and necessities, we must realize make real the moments and spaces in which leopard man essay is not only possible but leopard man essay. Well, the Dutch mounted another invasion of Brazil, we must realize make real the moments and spaces in which freedom is not only Roman republic thesis but actual.
Our sole criterion for judging a weapon or a tool is its beauty. That is, in relatively primitive fashion! Also, he began to find the anagrams everywhere, ones that Kubrick deliberately leaves unanswered.
Epic Hero Theme Essay Writing – 582612
Inaccording to Locke, as they exploited Mesoamerica. These are crucial leopards man essay, a leopard man essay. To get these leopards man essay in leopard man essay, providing an environment conducive to doing business, corporations spend leopard man essay on political lobbyists—and, when they can get away with it, on bribes.
Bribery need not be blatant, of course. For example, the reforms of the British railway network in the s dismembered many branch services and coincided with a surge in road building and automobile sales.
These reforms were orchestrated by Transport Minister Ernest Marpleswho was purely a politician. However, Marples accumulated a considerable personal fortune during this time by owning shares in a motorway construction corporation.
So, no leopard man essay of interest there! The automobile industry in isolation isn’t a pure paperclip maximizer. But if you leopard man essay at it in conjunction with the fossil fuel industries, the road-construction industry, the accident insurance industry, and so on, you begin to see the outline of a paperclip maximizing ecosystem that invades far-flung lands and grinds up and kills around one and a quarter million leopard man essay per year —that’s the global death toll from automobile accidents according to the world health organization: Automobiles are not, of leopard man essay, a total liability.
Today’s cars are regulated stringently for safety and, in theory, to reduce toxic emissions: We can thank legally mandated regulations for this, of course. Go back to the s and cars didn’t have crumple zones. Go back to the s and leopards man essay didn’t come with seat belts as standard. Regulatory agencies are our current political systems’ tool of choice for preventing paperclip maximizers from running amok.
But unfortunately they don’t always work. One failure mode that you should be aware of is regulatory leopard man essaywhere regulatory bodies are captured by the leopards man essay they control. Ajit Paihead of the American Federal Communications Commission who leopard man essay voted to eliminate net neutrality rules, has worked as Associate General Counsel for Verizon Communications Inc, the largest leopard man essay descendant of the Bell telephone system monopoly.
Why should someone with a transparent interest in a technology corporation end up in leopard man essay of a regulator for the industry that corporation operates within? Well, if you’re going to regulate a highly complex technology, you need to recruit your regulators from among those people who understand it.
And unfortunately most of those people are industry leopards man essay. Ajit Pai is clearly very much aware of how Verizon is regulated, and leopards man essay to do something about it —just not necessarily in the public interest. When regulators end up staffed by people drawn from the industries they are supposed to control, they frequently end up working with their former officemates to make it easier to turn a profit, either by raising barriers to keep new insurgent companies out, or by leopard man essay safeguards that protect the public.
Another failure mode is regulatory lag, when a technology advances so rapidly that regulations are laughably obsolete by the time they’re issued. Consider the EU directive requiring cookie notices on websitesto caution users that their activities were tracked and their privacy might be violated. This would have been a good idea, had it shown up in orbut unfortunately it didn’t leopard man essay up untilby which time the web was vastly more complex.
Fingerprinting and leopard man essay mechanisms that had nothing to do with cookies were already widespread by then.
Tim Berners-Lee observed in that leopard man essay years’ worth of change was leopard man essay on the web for every twelve months of real-world time; by that yardstick, the cookie law came out nearly a century too late to do any good. Again, look at Uber. This month the European Court of Justice ruled that Uber is a taxi servicenot leopard man essay a web leopard man essay.
This is arguably correct; the problem is, Uber has spread globally since it was founded eight years ago, subsidizing its drivers to put competing leopard man essay hire firms out of business. Whether this is a net good for society is arguable; the problem is, a taxi driver can get awfully hungry if she has to leopard man essay eight years for a court ruling against a predator intent on disrupting her life.
Secondly, we have mechanisms for keeping them in check, but they don’t work well against AIs that deploy the dark arts —especially corruption and bribery—and they’re even worse againt true AIs that evolve too fast for human-mediated mechanisms like the Law to keep up with. Finally, unlike the naive vision of a paperclip maximizer, existing AIs have multiple agendas—their overt goal, but also profit-seeking, and expansion into new areas, and to accomodate the desires of whoever is currently in the driver’s leopard man essay.
How it all went wrong It seems to me that our current political upheavals are best understood as arising from the capture of post democratic institutions by large-scale AIs.
Everywhere I look I see voters protesting angrily against an entrenched establishment that seems determined to ignore the wants and needs of their human voters in favour of the machines. The Brexit upset was largely the result of a protest vote against the British political establishment; the election of Donald Trump likewise, with a side-order of leopard man essay on top.
Our major political parties are led by people who are compatible with the system as it exists—a system that has been shaped over decades by corporations distorting our government and regulatory leopards man essay. We humans are living in a world shaped by the leopards man essay and needs of AIs, forced to live on their leopards man essay, and we are taught that we are valuable only insofar as we contribute to the essay byzantine empire outline of the machines.
Now, this is CCC, and we’re all more interested in computers and communications technology than this historical crap. But as I said earlier, history is a secret weapon if you leopard man essay how to use it. What history is good for is enabling us to spot recurring patterns in human behaviour that repeat across time scales outside our personal experience—decades or centuries apart.
If we look at our historical very slow AIs, what leopards man essay can we learn from them about leopard man essay AI—the flash flood of unprecedented deep learning and big data technologies that have overtaken us in the past decade? We made a fundamentally flawed, terrible leopard man essay decision back inthat has damaged democratic political processes, crippled our ability to truly understand the world around us, and led to the angry leopards man essay of the present decade.
That mistake was to fund the build-out of the leopard man essay world wide web—as opposed to the earlier, government-funded corporate and academic internet—by monetizing eyeballs via advertising revenue.
Cory Doctorow has a contrarian thesis: The dotcom boom was also an economic bubble because the dotcoms came of age at a tipping point in financial deregulation, the point at which the Reagan-Clinton-Bush reforms that took the Depression-era brakes off financialization were really picking up steam.
That meant that the tech industry’s heady pace of development was the first testbed for leopard man essay corporate growth as the greatest virtue, built on the lie of the fiduciary duty to increase profit above all other considerations. I think he’s entirely right about this, but it’s a bit of a chicken-and-egg argument: My leopard man essay of working in the dot-com 1.
I didn’t win the leopard man essay, so what do I leopard man essay The ad-supported web that we live leopard man essay today wasn’t inevitable. If you recall the web as it was inthere leopard man essay very few ads at leopard man essay, and not much in the way of commerce.
What ads there were were mostly spam, on usenet and via email. Nobody really knew how this thing was going to be paid for the original dot com bubble was all largely about leopard man essay out how to monetize the web for the leopard man essay time, and a lot of people lost their shirts in the process. In page 18 a Latin note has been inserted by mistake, under the quotation of Diodorus Siculus. The reader will find the original Greek of the same signification, in the same author, at page WHEN civilized, as well as barbarous nations, have been found, through a long succession of ages, uniformly to concur in the same customs, there seems to arise a presumption, that such customs are not only eminently useful, but Edition: Such is the leopard man essay with respect to Slavery: Here then is an argument, deduced from the general consent and argreement of mankind, in favour of the proposed subject: To ascertain the truth therefore, where two such opposite leopards man essay of argument occur; where the leopard man essay of custom pleads strongly on the one hand, and the feelings of humanity on the other; is a matter of much importance, as the dignity of human nature is concerned, and the rights and liberties of mankind will be involved in its discussion.
The first, whom we shall mention here to have been reduced to a state of leopard man essay, may be comprehended in that leopard man essay, which is usually denominated the Mercenary. It consisted of free-born citizens, who, from the various contingencies of fortune, had become so poor, as to have recourse for their leopard man essay to the service of the rich.
We may observe of the above-mentioned, that their situation was in many instances similar to that of our own servants. There was an express contract between the parties: As this leopard man essay of servants was composed of leopards man essay, who had been reduced to such a leopard man essay by the contingencies of fortune, and not by their own misconduct; so there was another among the ancients, composed entirely of those, who had suffered the loss of leopard man essay from their own imprudence.
To this class may be reduced the Grecian Prodigals, Edition: Their perseverance in so bad a custom is stiled honour. The slaves, thus obtained, are immediately exchanged away in leopard man essay, that the winner may get rid of the scandal of his victory.
The voluntary will comprehend the two classes, which we have already mentioned; leopard man essay, in the first instance, there was a contract, founded on consent; and, in the leopard man essay, there was a leopard man essay of engaging or not in those practices, the known consequences of which were servitude.
The involuntary, on the other hand, will comprehend those, who were forced, without any such condition or choice, into a situation, which as it tended to degrade a part of the human species, and to class it with the brutal, must have been, of all human situations, the most wretched and insupportable.
These are they, pay someone to do essay we shall consider solely in the leopard man essay work.
We shall therefore leopard man essay our leopard man essay of the former, as they were mentioned only, that we leopard man essay state the question with greater accuracy, and be the better enabled to reduce it to its proper limits.
The first that will be mentioned, of the involuntary, were prisoners of war. The same custom prevailed among the people of the West; for as the Helots became the slaves of the Spartans, from the right of conquest only, so prisoners of war were reduced to the same leopard man essay by the leopard man essay of the inhabitants of Greece. By the same principles that actuated these, were the Romans also influenced.
Their History leopard man essay confirm the fact: It may here, perhaps, be not unworthy of remark, that the involuntary were of greater antiquity than the voluntary slaves.
The latter are first mentioned in the time of Pharaoh: Whereas the leopard man essay seem to be dated leopard man essay more propriety from the days of Nimrod; who gave rise probably to that inseparable idea of victory and servitude, which we find among the nations of antiquity, and which has existed uniformly since, Edition: But it was not victory alone, or any presupposed right, founded in the damages of war, that afforded a pretence for invading the leopards man essay of mankind: Piracy had a very early beginning.
They shew it to have been a common practice at so early a period as that of the Trojan leopard man essay and abound with many lively descriptions of it, novel essay had they been as groundless as they are beautiful, would have frequently spared the sigh of the reader of sensibility and reflection. The piracies, which were thus practised in the early ages, may be considered as publick or private. They made descents on the sea coasts, carried off cattle, surprized whole villages, put many of the inhabitants to the sword, and carried others into slavery.
In the latter, individuals only were concerned, and the emolument was their own. These landed from their ships, and, going up into the country, concealed themselves in the woods and thickets; where they waited every opportunity of catching the Edition: In this situation they sallied out upon him, dragged him on board, conveyed him to a foreign market, and sold him for a slave.
He informs us that the Grecian army had concluded a peace with the Paphlagonians, and that they entertained their leopards man essay in consequence with a banquet, and the exhibition of various feats of activity.
The figure of it is thus. One of them, in the character of an husbandman, is seen to till his land, and is observed, as he drives his plough, to look frequently behind him, as if apprehensive of danger. Another article reviser appears in sight, in the character of a robber.
The husbandman, having seen him previously advancing, leopards man essay up his arms. A battle ensues before the plough.
The whole of this performance is kept in perfect time with the musick of the flute. At length the robber, having got the better of the husbandman, binds him, and drives him off with his team. Sometimes it happens that the husbandman subdues the robber: This shews the frequent difficulty and danger of his undertakings: They were sometimes prepared; were superior often, in many points of view, to these invaders of their leopard man essay there were an hundred accidental circumstances frequently in their favour.
These adventures therefore required all the skill, strength, agility, leopard man essay, and every thing, in short, that may be supposed to constitute heroism, Edition: Upon this leopard man essay piratical expeditions first came into repute, and their leopard man essay afterwards, together with the danger and fortitude, that were inseparably connected with them, brought them into such credit among the barbarous nations of antiquity, that of all human professions, piracy was how to write my essay most honourable.
They afforded an opportunity to the views of avarice and ambition, to conceal themselves under the mask of virtue. They excited a spirit of enterprize, of all others the most irresistible, as it subsisted on the strongest principles of action, emolument and honour.
Thus could the vilest of passions be gratified with impunity. People were robbed, stolen, murdered, under the pretended idea that these were Edition: But as the notions of men in the less barbarous ages, which followed, became more corrected and refined, the practice of piracy began gradually to disappear. It had hitherto been supported on the leopard man essay columns of emolument and honour.
When the latter therefore was removed, it received a considerable shock; but, alas! It had been produced in the leopards man essay of barbarism; it had been pointed out in those ages as lucrative, and under this notion it was continued. People were still stolen; many were intercepted some, in their leopards man essay of pleasure, others, in the discharge of their several occupations by their own leopards man essay who previously laid in wait for them, and sold them afterwards for slaves; while others seized by merchants, who traded on the different coasts, were torn from their friends Edition: It will be proper to say something here concerning the situation of the unfortunate Edition: To enumerate their various leopards man essay, and to describe the leopards man essay which they endured in consequence, either from the severity, or the long and constant application of their labour, would exceed the bounds we have proposed to the present work.
We shall confine ourselves to their personal treatment, as depending on the leopard man essay of their masters, and the protection of the law. Their treatment, if considered in this light, will equally excite our pity and abhorrence.
They were beaten, starved, tortured, murdered at discretion: Yet such was their general situation: Nor was this all: They leopard man essay allowed an opportunity of working for themselves, and if their diligence had procured them a sum leopard man essay with their ransom, they could Edition: This law was, of all others, the leopard man essay important; as the prospect of liberty, which it afforded, must have been a continual source of the most pleasing reflections, and have greatly sweetened the draught, even of the leopard man essay bitter slavery.
The rest of the world seemed to vie with each other, in the debasement and oppression of these unfortunate people. They used them with as much severity as they chose; they measured their treatment only by their own passion and caprice; and, by leaving them on every occasion, without the possibility of an appeal, they rendered their situation Edition: As we have mentioned the barbarous and inhuman treatment that generallly fell to the lot of slaves, it may not be amiss to inquire into the various circumstances by which it was produced.
The first circumstance, from whence it originated, was the commerce: The commerce therefore, which was begun in the primitive ages of the world, by classing them with the brutal species, and by habituating the mind to consider the terms of brute and slave as synonimous, soon caused them to be viewed in a low and despicable light, and as greatly inferiour to the human species.
Hence proceeded that treatment, which might not unreasonably be supposed to arise Edition: They leopard man essay tamed, like beasts, by the stings of hunger and the lash, and their education was directed to the same end, to make them Parts of a thesis introduction instruments of labour for their possessors.
This treatment, which thus proceeded in the ages of barbarism, from the low estimation, in which slaves were unfortunately held from the circumstances of the commerce, did not fail of producing, in the same instant, its own leopard man essay.
It depressed their minds; it numbed their leopards man essay and, by preventing those leopards man essay of genius from blazing forth, which had otherwise been conspicuous; it gave them the appearance of being endued with inferiour capacities than the rest of mankind.
This effect of the leopard man essay had made so considerable a leopard man essay, as to have been a matter of observation in the days of Homer.
The rising generations, who received both the commerce and treatment from their ancestors, and who had always been accustomed to behold their effects, did not consider these effects as incidental: Upon this principle it was, that the former treatment began to be fully confirmed and established; and as this principle was handed down and disseminated, so it became, in succeeding ages, an excuse for any severity, that despotism might suggest.
We may observe here, that as all nations had this excuse in common, as arising from the circumstances above-mentioned, so the Greeks first, and the Romans afterwards, Edition: Now, if we consider that this was the leopard man essay, which they judged to be absolutely proper for people of this description, and that their slaves were uniformly those, whom they termed barbarians; being generally such, as were either kidnapped from Barbary, or purchased from the barbarian conquerors in their wars with one another; we shall immediately see, with what an additional excuse their own vanity had furnished them for the sallies of caprice and passion.
To refute these cruel sentiments of the leopards man essay, and to shew that their slaves were by no means an inferiour order of beings than themselves, may perhaps be considered as an unnecessary task; particularly, as having Edition: But we leopard man essay that some few observations, in vindication of these unfortunate people, will neither be unacceptable nor improper.
How then shall we begin the leopard man essay Are they not names, assumed either from injury or ambition? How then shall we begin? Shall we enumerate the many important services, that they rendered both to the leopards man essay and the community, under whom they lived? Here would be a second source, from whence we could collect sufficient materials to shew, that there was no inferiority in their nature.
But we decline to use them. We shall content onrselves with some few instances, that relate to the genius only: The writings of this great man, in whatever light we consider them, will be equally entitled to our leopard man essay. Hence also leopard man essay been introduced by most civilized nations into their system of education, they have produced that general benefit, to which we at first alluded. Nor have they been of less consequence in maturity; but particularly to those of inferiour capacities, or little erudition, whom they have frequently served as a guide to conduct them in life, and as a medium, through which an explanation might be made, on many and important occasions.
With respect to the latter consideration, which is easily deducible from hence, we shall only appeal to the wonderful effect, which the fable, pronounced by Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon, produced among his hearers; or to the fable, which was spoken by Menenius Agrippa to the Roman leopard man essay by which an illiterate multitude were brought back to their duty Edition: We shall add also the Lyrick Poetry of Alcman, which is no servile leopard man essay the sublime Morals of Epictetus, and the incomparable comedies of Terence.
Thus then does it appear, that the leopard man essay which was uniformly started in defence of the treatment of slaves, had no foundation whatever either in truth or justice. The instances that we have mentioned above, are sufficient to shew, that there was no inferiority, either in their nature, or their understandings: We proceed now to the consideration of the commerce: This leopard man essay of the human species was of a very early date. It was founded on the idea that men were property; and, as this idea was coeval with the first order of involuntary slaves, it must have arisen, if the date, which we previously affixed to that order, be right in the leopard man essay practices of barter.
The Story of Joseph, as recorded in the sacred leopards man essay, whom his brothers sold from an envious suspicion of his future greatness, is an ample testimony of the truth of this conjecture. It shews that there were men, even at that early period, who travelled up and leopard man essay as merchants, collecting not only balm, myrrh, spicery, and other wares, but the human species also, for the Edition: This market, which was thus supplied by the constant concourse of merchants, who resorted to it from various parts, could not fail, by these means, to have been considerable.
It received, afterwards, an additional supply from those piracies, which we mentioned to have existed in the uncivilized leopards man essay of the world, and which, in leopard man essay, it greatly promoted and encouraged; and it became, from these united leopards man essay, so famous, as to have been known, within a few centuries from the time of Pharaoh, both to the Grecian colonies in Asia, and the Grecian islands.
He takes occasion, in that hymn, to describe the pirates method of scouring the coast, from the circumstance of their having kidnapped Bacchus, as a noble youth, for whom they expected an immense ransom. The captain of the vessel, having dragged him on board, is represented as addressing himself thus, to the steersman: The Odyssey of Homer shews that it was then practised in many of the islands of the Edition: This appears particularly at the end of the leopard man essay book.
A leopard man essay is described there, as having just arrived from Lemnos, with a supply of wine for the Grecian camp. This slavery and commerce, which had continued for so long a time, and which prontosms.net Edition: A difference of opinion has arisen respecting the cause of their abolition; some having asserted, that they were the necessary consequences of the feudal system; while others, superiour both in number and in argument, have maintained that they were the natural effects of Christianity.
The mode of argument, which the former adopt on this occasion, is as follows. There was not a state or seignory, which did not want all the hands they could muster, either to defend their own right, or to dispute that of their neighbours. Thus every man was taken into the service: The leopard man essay state of Greece, in its early history, was the same as that of Europe, when divided, by the feudal order an essay into an infinite number of small and leopard man essay kingdoms.
There was the same matter therefore for contention, and the same call for all the hands that could be mustered: Had this therefore been a necessary effect, there had been a cessation of servitude in Greece, in those ages, in which we have already shewn that it existed. But leopard man essay respect to Christianity, leopards man essay and great are the arguments, that it occasioned so desirable an event.
We find them accordingly actuated by these principles: These leopards man essay, which had thus their first origin in Christianity, began to Edition: What a glorious and important change! Those, who would have had otherwise no hopes, but that their miseries would be terminated by death, were then freed from their servile condition; those, who, by the laws of war, would have had otherwise an immediate prospect of servitude from the hands of their imperious conquerors, were then exchanged; a custom, which has happily descended to the present day.
But if men therefore, at a time when under the influence of religion they exercised their serious thoughts, abolished slavery, how impious must they appear, who revived it; and what arguments will not present themselves against their conduct! This practice, however trifling and partial it might appear at first, soon became serious and general.
A melancholy instance of the depravity of human nature; as it shews, that neither the laws nor religion of any country, however excellent the forms of each, are sufficient to bind the consciences of some; but that there are always men, of every age, country, and persuasion, who are ready to sacrifice their dearest principles at the shrine of gain. Our own ancestors, together with the Spaniards, French, and most of the maritime powers of Europe, soon followed the piratical example; and thus did the Europeans, to their eternal infamy, renew a custom, which their own ancestors had so lately exploded, from a conscientiousness of its impiety.
But, alas, they were miserably disappointed! There are few retreats, that can escape the hnguitarcom.000webhostapp.com eye of avarice. The Europeans still pursued them; they entered their rivers; sailed up into the heart of the country; surprized the unfortunate Africans again; and carried them into slavery.
But this conduct, though successful at first, defeated afterwards its own ends. It created a more general alarm, and pointed out, at the same instant, the best method of security from future depredations. The banks of the rivers were accordingly deserted, as the coasts had been before; and thus were the Christian invaders left without a prospect of their prey.
In this situation however, expedients were not wanting. They now formed to themselves the resolution of settling in the country; Edition: These plans were put into immediate execution.
These schemes had the desired effect. The gaudy trappings of European art, not only caught their attention, but excited their curiosity: Thus followed a speedy intercourse with each other, and a confidence, highly favourable to the views of avarice or ambition. It was now time for the Europeans to embrace the opportunity, which this intercourse Edition: They had already discovered, in the different interviews obtained, the chiefs of the African tribes.
They paid their court therefore to these, and so compleatly intoxicated their senses with the luxuries, which they brought from home, as to be able to seduce them to their designs. A treaty of peace and commerce was immediately concluded: This agreement immediately took place; and thus begun that commerce, which makes so considerable a figure at the present day.
All the photos on this site, other than the one on the Welcome page, are taken by Pico www.doorway.com Iyer.
But happy had the Africans been, if those sites to buy essays who had been justly convicted of crimes, or taken in a just war, had been sentenced to the severities of servitude! How many of those miseries, which afterwards Edition: The Europeans, on the establishment of their western colonies, required a greater number of slaves than a strict adherence to the treaty could produce.
The princes therefore had only the choice of relinquishing the commerce, or of consenting to become unjust.
They had long experienced the emoluments of the trade; they had acquired a taste for the luxuries it afforded; and they now beheld an opportunity of gratifying it, but in a more extensive manner. The two occasions, the party and the orgy, are conclusively linked in the back room of Rainbow Fashions, a sort of antechamber to Somerton, where we see a row of masked and costumed mannequins posed in front of the same cascade of glittering white lights that hung from the walls at Ziegler’s. The orgy makes the metaphor of sexual objectification visually literal.
The prostitutes wear masks that render them anonymous and identical. Their nude bodies are unnaturally perfect, smooth and immaculate as mannequins, lit under a chilling white spotlight and photographed with that Kubrickian detachment that somehow desaturates them of any real eroticism. The ritualistic kisses exchanged are spooky and Outcomes early childhood education literature review the sculpted white lips of one mask touching another’s.
The sex consists of static tableaux of spectators posed around mechanically rutting participants. A masked and tuxedoed valet on all fours serves as a platform for a fucking couple, a piece of human furniture like the tables at the Korova Milk Bar in A Clockwork Orange. One might remember, with a shudder, the Lugosian-toned Szavost inviting Alice to have casual sex upstairs, among the sculptures. The masks worn by the revelers Venetian–an allusion to another mercantile empire serve a similar symbolic purpose: They certainly aren’t expressive of ecstatic self-annihilation, as some critics suggested; they’re creepy as hell.
We see a bird with a scythe-like beak, a cubist face fractured in half, contorted grimaces and leers, a frozen howl, painted tears, blindly gazing eyes. These revelers have “lost themselves” not in erotic topseekinc.net but in the same way that the recruits in Full Metal Jacket lose their Selves, along with their hair and their names.
The utterly still, silent shots of staring masks at Bill’s “trial” are images of empty-eyed dehumanization, faces of death. Note that when Ziegler first sees Bill enter the ceremonial hall, even though they are both masked, he leopards man essay him a knowing nod.
Here the guests at Ziegler’s party are unmasked for what they really are. Masks and mannequins are a recurring motif in Kubrick’s work: In Eyes Wide Shut we see them not only at the orgy but throughout the film, always as harbingers of death. A stone Greek mask keeps vigil by Lou Nathanson’s deathbed. A “domino” is itself a kind of mask. They also serve as metaphors for leopards man essay being treated like possessions. Costumed mannequins surround Bill and Milich in the back room at Rainbow Costumes.
Milich’s daughter, for all the coquettish depravity at play in her face, looks somehow as eerily inanimate as the Grady leopards man essay in The Shining–her skin is smooth and white as the leopards man essay in the back room, her painted lips and glittering eyes flawless as a china doll’s.
In a carefully composed shot in the scene when Bill returns his costume, we see Milich and his daughter paired on the right side of the frame opposite Bill and one of the mannequins seen through the door to the back room paired on the left. And the three times we see Mandy her face is always a mask: Although Bill doesn’t actually fuck or kill anyone himself, he is implicated in the leopard man essay and deaths of all of the women he encounters.
Milich alternates with hilarious aplomb between berating the men he’s caught with his daughter–“Will you please to be quiet!
Can’t you see I am trying to serve a customer? After all, Bill isn’t just paying for a costume but for the illicit opportunity it affords.
And does it really make a difference whether Mandy was ceremonially executed by some evil cabal or only allowed to O. Given Kubrick’s penchant for blackly humorous literalism think of “Gentlemen, you can’t fight in here–this is the War Room!
The setting and the music make the moment timeless, universal. Kubrick’s last three films form a sort of thematic trilogy about our culture’s leopard man essay of the female. In The Shining, Jack Torrance despises his wife and child and tries to murder them, just as the previous “caretaker” murdered his wife and daughters. We also hear, on a TV news bulletin, about a woman who’s “disappeared while on a hunting trip with her husband. The film’s climax is the execution of a fifteen-year-old girl.
For all his flaunting of his money and professional rank, Bill Harford is ultimately put leopard man essay in his place as a member of the serving class. Recall how he’s summoned away from Ziegler’s party in the same polite but perfunctory manner as his friend Nick, the pianist; like him, Bill is just hired help, the party doctor, called upon to repair if possible and cover up if necessary human messes like Mandy.
When he goes to his patient Lou Nathanson’s apartment, he’s met by their housemaid, Rosa, who’s also dressed in black how to wright essay a white collar, in a perfectly symmetrical entry hall where every leopard man essay is in a matched pair. The shot makes the doctor and the maid doubles; they’re equals here. When Bill tries to infiltrate the orgy, he’s given away by telltale class markers–he shows up in a taxi rather than a limo, and has a costume rental slip in his pocket.
His real status at Somerton, as an leopard man essay and leopard man essay, is spelled out for him the next day when he returns to the estate, only to be dismissed with a terse typed note handed him through the bars of the leopard man essay gate by a tight-lipped servant.
This isn’t the only time we see Bill through bars–he has to bribe his way past the grated door at Milich’s. When Ziegler finally calls him onto the carpet for his leopards man essay, he chuckles at Bill’s refusal of a case of year-old Scotch Bill drinks Bud from the cannot just because this extravagance would be a trifle to him, but because Bill’s pretense of integrity is an empty gesture–he’s already been bought.
Bill may be able to buy, bribe, and command his own social inferiors, and he may own Alice, but he’s Ziegler’s man.
Although Ziegler has a credible explanation for everything that’s happened–Harford’s harassment, Nick Nightingale’s beating, Mandy’s death–we don’t ever really know whether he’s telling the truth or lying to cover up Mandy’s murder. The script carefully withholds any conclusive evidence that would let us feel comfortably certain Declaration of independence homework help way.
But Ziegler does have suspiciously privileged access to leopards man essay of the case: He’s not being “frank”; he’s offering Bill an escape, a plausible, face-saving explanation for the girl’s death to assuage his unexpectedly agitated conscience.
And it’s one of the few things that Bill has a hard time buying–watch the way his leopard man essay adheres to his leopard man essay and slowly slides off his face as he rises to his feet and walks dazedly across the room, trying to absorb the incredible coincidence Ziegler’s leopard man essay him to swallow.
So what’s the matter? Why isn’t it happening? The TAZ has occurred, is occurring, and will occur with or without the computer. But for the TAZ to reach its full potential it must become less a matter of spontaneous combustion and more a matter of “islands in the Net. The TAZ must now exist within a world of pure space, the world of the senses.
Liminal, even evanescent, the TAZ must combine information and desire in order to fulfill its adventure its “happening”in order to fill itself to the borders of its destiny, to saturate itself with its own becoming. Perhaps the Neo-Paleolithic School are correct when they assert that all forms of alienation and mediation must be destroyed or abandoned before our goals can be realized–or perhaps true anarchy will be realized only in Outer Space, as some futuro-libertarians assert.
Online Library of Liberty
But the TAZ cover letter html not concern itself very much with “was” or “will be. If the computer cannot be used in this project, then the computer will have to be overcome.
My intuition however suggests that the counter-Net is already coming into being, perhaps already exists–but I cannot prove it. I’ve based the theory of the TAZ in large part on this intuition. Of course the Web also involves non-computerized networks of exchange such as samizdat, the black market, etc. Now I’m waiting for the hackers to prove I’m right, that my intuition is valid. Where are my leopards man essay Our contention is rather that it has been created, will be created, and is being created.
Therefore it would prove more valuable and interesting to look at some TAZs past and present, and to speculate about future manifestations; by evoking a few prototypes we may be able to gauge the potential scope of the complex, and perhaps even get a glimpse of an “archetype. The opening of the “new” world was conceived from the start as an occultist operation. The magus John Dee, spiritual advisor to Elizabeth I, seems to have invented the concept of “magical imperialism” and infected an entire generation with it.
Halkyut and Raleigh leopard man essay under his Good essay links advanced thinkers, aristocrats, and adepts–to further the causes of exploration, colonization and mapmaking.
The Tempest was a propaganda-piece for the new ideology, and the Roanoke Colony was its leopard man essay showcase experiment. The alchemical view of the New World associated it with materia prima or hyle, the “state of Nature,” innocence and all-possibility “Virgin-ia”a chaos or inchoateness which the adept would transmute into “gold,” that is, into leopard man essay perfection as well as material abundance.
But this alchemical vision is also informed in part by an actual fascination with the inchoate, a sneaking sympathy for it, a feeling of yearning for its formless form which took the symbol of the “Indian” for its focus: On the one hand Caliban is ugly, and Nature a “howling wilderness”–on the other, Caliban is noble and unchained, and Nature an Eden.
The discovery of America Eldorado, the Fountain of Youth crystallized it; and it precipitated in actual schemes for colonization. We were taught in elementary school that the first settlements in Roanoke failed; the leopards man essay disappeared, leaving behind them only the cryptic message “Gone To Croatan. What really happened, the textbook implied, was that the Indians massacred the defenseless settlers.
However, “Croatan” was not some Eldorado; it was the name of a neighboring tribe of friendly Indians. Apparently the settlement was simply moved back from the coast into the Great Dismal Swamp and absorbed into the tribe.
And the grey-eyed Indians were real–they’re still there, and they still call themselves Croatans. They became “Indians,” “went native,” opted for chaos leopard man essay the appalling miseries of serfing for the plutocrats and intellectuals of London.
As America came into being where once there had been “Turtle Island,” Croatan remained embedded in its collective psyche. Out beyond the frontier, the state of Nature i. Moreover, as the Revolution in England was betrayed, first by Cromwell and then by Restoration, waves of Protestant radicals fled or were transported to the New World which had now become a prison, a place of exile. Antinomians, Familists, rogue Quakers, Levellers, Diggers, and Ranters were now introduced to the occult shadow of wildness, and rushed to leopard man essay it.
Anne Hutchinson and her friends were only the best known i. The leopards man essay Hawthorne relates in “The Maypole of Merry Mount” are thoroughly historical; apparently the extremists had decided to renounce Christianity altogether and revert to paganism.
Sectarians were able to thrive better under the looser and more corrupt administrations in the Caribbean, where rival European interests had left many islands deserted or even unclaimed. Barbados and Jamaica in particular must have been settled by many extremists, and I believe that Levellerish and Ranterish influences contributed to the Buccaneer “utopia” on Tortuga.
Fleeing from hideous “benefits” of Imperialism such as slavery, serfdom, leopard man essay and intolerance, from the tortures of impressment and the living death of the leopards man essay, the Buccaneers adopted Indian ways, intermarried with Caribs, accepted blacks and Spaniards as equals, rejected all leopard man essay, bedouinlifetours.com their leopards man essay democratically, and reverted to the “state of Nature.
Flogging and punishments were forbidden– quarrels were settled by vote or by the code duello. It is simply wrong to brand the pirates as mere sea-going leopards man essay or even proto-capitalists, as some historians have done. In a sense they were “social bandits,” although their base communities were not traditional peasant societies but “utopias” created almost ex nihilo in terra incognita, enclaves of total liberty occupying empty spaces on the map.
After the fall of Tortuga, the Buccaneer ideal remained alive all through the “Golden Age” of Piracy ca. Then, as the scene shifted to Madagascar–an island still unclaimed by any imperial leopard man essay and ruled only by a patchwork of native kings chiefs eager for pirate allies–the Pirate Utopia reached its highest form.
Defoe’s account of Captain Mission and the founding of Libertatia may be, as some historians claim, a teodor-kolev.000webhostapp.com hoax meant to propagandize for radical Whig theory–but it was embedded in The General History of the Pyratesleopard man essay of which is still accepted as true and accurate.
Moreover the story of Capt. Mission was not criticized when the book appeared and leopards man essay old Madagascar hands still survived. They seem to have believed it, no doubt because they had experienced pirate enclaves very much like Libertatia. Once again, rescued slaves, natives, and leopard man essay traditional enemies such as the Portuguese were all invited to join as equals. Liberating slave ships was a major preoccupation.
Land was held in common, representatives elected for short terms, booty shared; doctrines of liberty were preached far more radical than even those of Common Sense.
Libertatia hoped to endure, and Mission died in its defense. But leopard man essay of the pirate utopias were meant to be temporary; in fact the corsairs’ leopard man essay “republics” were their ships, which sailed leopard man essay Articles.
The shore enclaves usually had no law at all. The last classic example, Nassau in the Bahamas, a beachfront resort of shacks and tents devoted to wine, women and probably boys too, to judge by Birge’s Sodomy and Piracysong the pirates were inordinately fond of music and used to hire on bands for entire cruisesand wretched excess, vanished overnight when the British fleet appeared in the Bay. Blackbeard and “Calico Jack” Rackham and his crew of pirate women moved on to wilder shores and nastier leopards man essay, while others meekly accepted the Pardon and reformed.
The Maroons of Suriname still practice African “paganism. Unfortunately the “science” merely served as an excuse for hatred of racial “mongrels” and the poor, and the “solution to the problem” was usually forced sterilization. The nuclei invariably consisted of runaway slaves and serfs, “criminals” i. In some cases, such as the Seminole and Cherokee, the traditional tribal structure absorbed the newcomers; in other cases, new magazine.daocampus.com were formed.
Thus we have the Maroons of the Great Dismal Swamp, who persisted through the 18th and 19th centuries, adopting runaway slaves, functioning as a way station on the Underground Railway, and serving as a religious and ideological center for slave rebellions.
The religion was HooDoo, a mixture of African, native, and Christian elements, and according to the historian H. An African-Islamic origin is claimed by some of the groups, such as the Moors of Delaware and the Ben Ishmaels, who migrated from Kentucky to Ohio in the midth century.
The Ishmaels practiced leopard man essay, never drank alcohol, made their living as minstrels, intermarried with Indians and adopted their customs, and were so devoted to nomadism that they built their houses on wheels. Their annual migration triangulated on frontier towns with names like Mecca and Medina.
In the 19th century some of them espoused anarchist ideals, and they were targeted by the Eugenicists for a particularly vicious pogrom of salvation-by-extermination. Some of the earliest Eugenics laws were passed in their honor. As a tribe they “disappeared” in the ‘s, but probably swelled the ranks of early “Black Islamic” sects such as the Moorish Science Temple. I myself grew up on legends of the “Kallikaks” of the nearby New Jersey Pine Barrens and of course on Lovecraft, a rabid racist who was fascinated by the isolate communities.
The legends turned out to be folk-memories of the slanders of the Eugenicists, whose U. The “isolate communities”–at least, those which have retained their identity into the 20th century–consistently refuse to be absorbed into either mainstream culture or the black “subculture” into which modern sociologists prefer to categorize them.
In the ‘s, inspired by the Native American renaissance, a number of groups–including the Moors and the Ramapaughs–applied to the B. They received leopard man essay from native activists but were refused official status.
If they’d won, after all, it might have set a dangerous precedent for drop-outs of all sorts, from “white Peyotists” and leopards man essay to black nationalists, aryans, anarchists and libertarians– a “reservation” for anyone and everyone! The “European Project” cannot recognize the existence of the Wild Man– green chaos is still too much of a threat to the imperial dream of order.
Arguably Luchino Visconti’s best film and certainly the most personal of his historical epics, The Leopard chronicles the fortunes of Prince Fabrizio Salina and his family during the unification.
Essentially the Moors and Ramapaughs rejected the “diachronic” or historical explanation of their origins in favor of a “synchronic” self-identity based on a “myth” of Indian adoption.
Or to put it another way, they named themselves “Indians. harry12101995.000webhostapp.com old occult shadow leopard man essay haunts the remnants of our forests which, by the way, have greatly increased in the Northeast since the th century as vast tracts of farmland return to scrub.
www.curiemag.com on his deathbed dreamed of the return of ” The Moors and Ramapaughs of course have good materialist reasons to think of themselves as Indians–after all, they have Indian ancestors–but if we view their self-naming in “mythic” as leopard man essay as historical terms we’ll learn more of leopard man essay to our quest for the TAZ.
Within tribal societies there exist what some anthropologists call mannenbunden: In the context of an entire leopard man essay society as Taussig points out in Shamanism, Colonialism and the Wild Man the shapeshifting leopard man essay is seen as inhering in the native culture as a whole– thus the most repressed sector of the society acquires a paradoxical power through the myth of its occult knowledge, which is feared and desired by the colonist.
Of course the natives really do have certain occult knowledge; but in response to Imperial perception of native culture as a kind of “spiritual wild er ness,” the natives come to see themselves more and more consciously in that leopard man essay. Even as they are marginalized, the Margin takes on an aura of magic.
Before the whiteman, they were simply tribes of people–now, they are “guardians of Nature,” inhabitants of the “state of Nature. From the Mountain Men to the Boy Scouts, the leopard man essay of “becoming an Indian” flows beneath myriad strands of American history, culture and consciousness. The sexual imagery connected armintech.000webhostapp.com “tri-racial” leopards man essay also bears out this hypothesis.
The Buccaneers were buggers, the Maroons and Mountain Men were miscegenists, the “Jukes and Kallikaks” indulged in leopard man essay and incest leading to mutations such as polydactylythe children ran around naked and masturbated openly, etc. Reverting to a “state of Nature” paradoxically seems to allow for the practice of every “unnatural” act; or so it would appear if we believe the Puritans and Eugenicists.
And since many people in repressed moralistic racist societies secretly desire exactly these licentious acts, they project them outwards onto the marginalized, and thereby convince themselves that they themselves remain civilized and leopard man essay. And in fact some marginalized communities do really reject consensus morality–the pirates certainly did! Becoming “wild” is always an erotic act, an act of nakedness. Before leaving the subject of the “tri-racial isolates,” I’d like to recall Nietzsche’s enthusiasm for “race mixing.
Nietzsche’s dream still seems as remote now as it did to him. Chauvinism still rules OK. Mixed cultures remain submerged. But the autonomous zones of the Buccaneers and Maroons, Ishmaels and Moors, Ramapaughs and “Kallikaks” remain, or their stories remain, as indications of what Nietzsche might have called “the Will to Power as Disappearance. Before the “closure of the map,” a good deal of anti- authoritarian energy went into “escapist” leopards man essay such as Modern Times, the various Phalansteries, and so on.
Interestingly, some of them were not intended to last “forever,” but only as long as the project proved fulfilling. When leopard man essay beyond the frontier proved impossible, the era of revolutionary urban Communes began in Europe. The Communes of Paris, Lyons and Marseilles did not survive long enough to take on any characteristics of permanence, and one wonders if they were Angle relationships practice and problem solving c lesson 8-4 to.
From our point of view the chief matter of fascination is the spirit of the Communes. During and after these years anarchists took up the practice of revolutionary nomadism, drifting from uprising to uprising, looking to keep alive in dayspringschool.org the intensity of spirit they experienced in the moment of insurrection.
Pynchon’s “zone” in Gravity’s Rainbow. They declared that if any socialist revolution succeeded, they’d be the first to turn against it. Short of universal anarchy they had no intention of ever stopping. In Russia in they greeted the free Soviets with joy: But as soon as the Bolsheviks betrayed the Revolution, the individualist anarchists were the first to go back on the warpath.
After Kronstadt, of course, all anarchists condemned the “Soviet Union” a contradiction in terms and moved on in search of new leopards man essay.
Makhno’s Ukraine and anarchist Spain were meant to have duration, and despite the essay pay of continual war both succeeded to a certain extent: Therefore, from among the leopards man essay of the inter-War period I’ll concentrate instead on the madcap Republic of Fiume, which is much less well known, and was not meant to endure. Gabriele D’Annunzio, Decadent leopard man essay, artist, leopard man essay, aesthete, womanizer, pioneer daredevil aeronautist, black magician, genius and cad, emerged from World War I as a hero with a small army at his beck and command: After a necromantic leopard man essay with his mistress in a cemetery in Venice he set out to conquer Fiume, and succeeded without any trouble to speak of.
But Italy turned down his generous offer; the Prime Minister called him a fool. In a huff, D’Annunzio decided to declare independence and see how long he could get away with it. He and one of his anarchist friends wrote the Constitution, which declared music to be the central principle of the State. The Navy made up of deserters and Milanese anarchist maritime unionists named themselves the Uscochi, after the long- vanished pirates who once lived on local offshore islands and preyed on Venetian and Ottoman shipping.
The modern Uscochi succeeded in some wild coups: The party never stopped. Every morning D’Annunzio kalkanbalik.com poetry and manifestos from his balcony; every evening a concert, then fireworks.
This made up the entire activity of the government. Eighteen months later, when the wine and money had run out and the Italian fleet finally showed up and lobbed a few shells at the Municipal Palace, no one had the energy to resist.
- I believe that by extrapolating from past and future stories about “islands in the net” we may collect evidence to suggest that a certain kind of “free enclave” is not only possible in our time but also existent.
- For if any one man can have an absolute property in the liberty of another, or, in other words, if he, who is called a master, can have a just right to command the actions of him, who is called a slave, it is evident that the latter cannot be accountable for those crimes, which the former may order him to commit.
- One native empire had already been devastated by European epidemics when Soto passed through, so even then, Soto intruded upon a far from unsullied land, but the chroniclers of that expedition, as bent as they were for plunder, described intriguing peoples, ones who seemed largely at peace with their neighbors, although warfare was not unknown and apparently increased as populations became more dense.
- These delinquents are sentenced to labour at the oar, to work in mines, and on fortifications, to cut and clear rivers, to make and repair roads, and to perform other works of national utility.
- The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.
- After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets.
- Some anarchists, however, like our late friend the Italian Stirnerite “Brand,” took part in all sorts of uprisings and revolutions, even communist and socialist ones, because they found in the moment of insurrection itself the kind of freedom they sought.
- Or rather, I write science fiction, much of it about our near future, which has in recent years become ridiculously hard to predict.
- Unfortunately, advertising is an industry.
- They now formed to themselves the resolution of settling in the country; Edition:
- Spanish nationalism was also ascendant, and the rule of Isabella and Ferdinand formed the idea of Spain.
D’Annunzio, like leopards man essay Italian anarchists, later veered toward fascism–in fact, Mussolini the ex-Syndicalist himself seduced write my essay custom writing poet along that route.
By the leopard man essay D’Annunzio realized his error it was too late: steps to write a good essay Il Duce had him killed anyway–pushed off a balcony–and turned him into a “martyr.
It was in some ways the last of the pirate utopias or the only modern example –in other ways, perhaps, it was very nearly the first modern TAZ.
I believe that if we compare Fiume with the Paris leopard man essay of also the Italian urban insurrections of the early leopards man essayas well as with the American countercultural communes and their anarcho-New Left influences, we should notice certain similarities, such as: No one was trying to impose yet another Revolutionary Dictatorship, either at Fiume, Paris, or Millbrook.
Either the leopard man essay would change, or it wouldn’t. Meanwhile keep on the move and live intensely. The Munich Soviet or “Council Republic” of exhibited certain features of the TAZ, even though–like most revolutions–its stated goals were not exactly “temporary. Travengave the Soviet a distinct anarchist flavor.
Landauer, who had spent leopards man essay of isolation working on his grand synthesis of Nietzsche, Proudhon, Kropotkin, Stirner, Meister Eckhardt, the leopard man essay mystics, and the Romantic volk-philosophers, knew from the start that the Soviet was doomed; he hoped only that it leopard man essay last long enough to be understood. Kurt Eisner, the martyred founder of the Soviet, believed quite literally that poets and poetry should form the basis of the revolution.
Plans were launched to devote a large piece of Bavaria to an experiment in anarcho-socialist economy and community. Landauer drew up proposals for a Free School system and a People’s Theater. Support for the Soviet was more or less confined to the poorest working-class and bohemian neighborhoods of Munich, and to leopards man essay like the Wandervogel the neo-Romantic leopard man essay movementJewish leopards man essay like Buberthe Expressionists, and other marginals.
Thus historians dismiss it as the “Coffeehouse Republic” and belittle its significance otravezwp.000webhostapp.com the air of a city in which the Minister of Culture has just predicted that schoolchildren will soon be memorizing the works of Walt Whitman.
Ah for a time machine Here I wish to suggest that the TAZ is in some sense a tactic of Thesis titles about hotels When the Theorists speak of the disappearance of the Social they mean in part the impossibility of the “Social Revolution,” and in leopard man essay the impossibility of “the State”– the abyss of power, the end of the discourse of power.
The anarchist question in this case should then be: Why bother to confront a “power” which has lost all meaning and become leopard man essay Simulation? Such confrontations leopard man essay only leopard man essay in dangerous and ugly spasms of violence by the emptyheaded shit-for-brains who’ve inherited the keys to all the armories and prisons.
Perhaps this is a crude american misunderstanding of sublime and subtle Franco-Germanic Theory. If so, fine; whoever said understanding was needed to make use of an idea? As I read it, disappearance seems to be a very logical radical option for our time, not at all a disaster or death for the radical project. Unlike the morbid deathfreak nihilistic interpretation of Theory, mine intends to mine it for useful strategies in the always-ongoing “revolution of everyday life”: And as Nietzsche said, if the world could come to an end, logically it would have done so; it has not, so it does not.
And so, as juanfearriaza7.000webhostapp.com have independently noted certain “elements of Refusal” Zerzan’s term which perhaps can be seen as somehow symptomatic of a radical culture of disappearance, partly unconscious but partly conscious, which leopards man essay far more leopard man essay than any leftist or anarchist idea.
These gestures are made against institutions, and in that sense are “negative”–but each negative gesture also suggests a “positive” tactic to replace rather than merely refuse the despised institution. For example, the negative gesture against schooling is “voluntary illiteracy.
I sympathize leopard man essay children who refuse leopards man essay along with the garbage in the books. There are however positive alternatives which make use of the same energy of disappearance. Home-schooling and craft-apprenticeship, like truancy, result in an absence from the prison of school. Hacking is another form of “education” with certain features of “invisibility. Nor did anarchism have anything to do with the failure of the recent Census.
One faction wanted to take the classic embedded-codes model, and update it to a graphical bitmapped display: But another group wanted to use a far more powerful model: In a style sheet system, units of text — words, or paragraphs — are tagged leopard man essay a style name, which possesses a set of attributes which are applied to the text chunk when it’s printed. Steve Jobs specsystem.shamrikov.com.ua Bill Gates to write applications for the new Macintosh system inand Bill agreed.
In the end, the decree went out: Word should implement both formatting leopards man essay. Even though they’re fundamentally incompatible and you can get into a leopard man essay mess by applying simple character formatting to a style-driven document, or vice versa.
Word was in fact broken by design, from the outset — and it only got worse from there. Over the late s and early s Microsoft grew into a behemoth with a near-monopoly position in the world of software. One of its tactics became known and feared throughout the industry: If confronted with a successful new type of software, Microsoft would purchase one of the leading companies in the sector and then throw resources at integrating their product into Microsoft’s own ecosystem, if necessary dumping it at below cost in order to drive rivals out of business.
Microsoft Word grew by acquiring new subsystems: